Comparison of TuMV initial infection efficiency between the agro-infiltration (pBD-TuMV-YC5) and mechanical inoculation (virus culture of TuMV YC5). Virus accumulated in vivo on inoculated or systemic leaves of N. benthamiana plants in which infection was initiated by either agro-infiltration or mechanical inoculation with TuMV infectious clones. The numbers indicated the days after inoculation (dpi). The virus titer was detected by ELISA with TuMV CP antiserum. The 12 dpi of TuMV-infected N. benthamiana plants (TuMV) were used as a positive control, whereas the mock-inoculated plants (Mock) were the negative control. The samples of 2, 4, 6, and 12 dpi significantly different with the sample of 0 dpi in the same inoculation method and leaves position (p-value < 0.05) are indicated as “*”. Significant difference between the agro-infiltration and the mechanical inoculation of the inoculated leaves under the same dpi (p-value < 0.05) is indicated as “a”. Significant difference between the agro-infiltration and the mechanical inoculation of the systemic leaves under the same dpi (p-value < 0.05) is indicated as “b”. Bars represent standard deviations (n = 3).