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Table 2 Genes from STGs and non-STGs imparting enhanced salinity tolerance in transgenic studies

From: Salt tolerance mechanisms in Salt Tolerant Grasses (STGs) and their prospects in cereal crop improvement

Source Gene Description Target organism Inference Reference
Agropyron elongatum* AeNHX1 Vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Arabidopsis sp. Root specific compartmentation of Na+ ions Qiao et al. 2007
Festuca sp.
Aeluropus littoralis* AlNHX1 Vacuolar Na+/K+ antiporters Nicotiana tabacum Compartmentalize more Na+ in roots and keep a relatively high K+/Na+ ratio in leaves Zhang et al. 2008
AlSAP Two conserved zinc-finger domains A20 and AN1 Nicotiana tabacum Transgenic plants able to set seed at up to 350 mM NaCl Saad et al. 2010
Chloris virgata* ChlMT1 Metallothioneine Saccharomyces Increases tolerance to salinity and ROS Nishiuchi et al. 2007
Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Encodes a group of 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins Morus alba Enhanced salinity tolerance by increased accumulation of proline Lal et al. 2008
HvNHX2 Vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Arabidopsis thaliana Able to grow at 200 mM NaCl Bayat et al. 2011
Leymus chinensis* LcDREB3a Dehydration-responsive element-binding transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana Improved abiotic stress tolerance including salinity with no retardation in growth Xianjun et al. 2011
LcMYB-1 MYB related transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced salinity tolerance due to increased accumulation of proline and soluble sugars Cheng et al. 2013
Oryza rufipogon OrbHLH001 Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein gene Arabidopsis thaliana Improved salinity tolerance in transgenic plants Li et al. 2010
Oryza sativa OsNHX1 Na+/H+ antiporter Populus sp. transgenic plants grew normally in the presence of 200 mM/l NaCl Wang et al. 2005
Paspalum vaginatum* PvUGE1 Putative UDP-galactose epimerase Oryza sativa Enhanced salinity tolerance Endo et al. 2005
PvMET1 Metallothioneine Oryza sativa Enhanced salinity tolerance Endo et al. 2005
Pennisetum glaucum* PgNHX1 Vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Oryza sativa Induced more extensive root system and completion of life cycle of rice at 150 mM NaCl Verma et al. 2007
Porteresia coarctata* PcINO1 Synthesis of L- myoinositol-1 phosphate synthase Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco plants showed growth in 200–300 mM NaCl Majee et al.2004
PcSrp Root-specific cDNA encoding serine-rich-protein Eleusine coracana Transgenic plants able to grow and set seed at 250 mM NaCl Mahalakshmi et al.2006
Puccinellia tenuiflora* PutAPx Ascorbate peroxidase coding gene Saccharomyces Imparted higher resistance to salinity induced oxidative stress Guan et al.2011
AKT-1-type-K + channel Plasma membrane K+ channel protein Arabidopsis thaliana Increased accumulation of K+ ion as compared to Na+ Ardie et al. 2010
Spartina alterniflora* SaVHAC1 Vacuolar H+ ATPase subunit C1 Oryza sativa Enhanced salinity tolerance in rice Baisakh et al. 2012
SaSce9 Small ubiquitin related modifier (SUMO) conjugating enzyme Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced salinity and drought tolerance by inducing stress responsive genes Karan and Subudhi 2012
Triticum aestivum TaNIP Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (novel aquaporin gene) Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced salt tolerance by accumulation of higher K+ and proline Gao et al. 2010
TaST Unknown salt-induced gene Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced salt tolerance by accumulating more Ca2+, soluble sugar, and proline and less Na+ Huang et al. 2012
TaNHX2 Vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Medicago sativa Enhanced salt tolerance Zhang et al. 2012
Zea mays ZmPMP3-1 Plasma membrane protein Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced salinity tolerance by regulation of ion homeostasis and ROS scavenging Fu et al. 2012
  1. (*) indicates Grasses considered as STG model plants.