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Table 1 Some examples of obvious toxic symptoms induced by metals

From: How plants cope with heavy metals

Metal Toxic symptoms Reference
Excess or deficiency of copper, excess of uranium, zinc, cadmium Impact on Photosynthetic apparatus: chlorotic leaves, changed ratios of chlorophyll a and b, decreasing net photosynthetic rate Ouzounidou 1995Viehweger and Geipel 2010Monnet et al. 2001Prasad 1995reviewed in Mysliwa-Kurdziel et al. 2004
Excess of aluminium, cadmium, copper Effects on root ultrastructure: inhibition of root elongation, increase in volume of cortex cells, damage to epidermis Kidd et al. 2001Vazquez et al. 1992, Ouzounidou, 1995reviewed in Barcelo et al. 2004
Excess of aluminium, cadmium, lead Lipid peroxidation of membranes – membrane leakage, change of lipid composition Kochian 1995Hernandez and Cooke 1997Stefanov et al. 1995
Cadmium, lead, uranium Changes in cellular concentrations of essential micronutrients like iron, calcium, manganese, zinc Hernandez et al. 1998Zhang et al. 2000Viehweger and Geipel 2010
  1. It should be noted that not only excessive metal concentrations causes toxicity.