The relative expression levels under abiotic and biotic stresses. Intact seedlings roots were partly soaked in Fe (200 μM FeSO4), Cu (200 μM CuSO4), 500 mM NaCl and Man (500 mM mannitol) for heavy metals, salinity and drought treatments. The seedlings were kept at 40°C for 3 hours for heat treatment. For plant hormones treatments, seedlings were with 1 mM SA, ABA, GA, NAA and MeJA for 12 hours. The control was soaked in or sprayed only deionized water and 18S rRNA was used as an internal control gene.