Generic affiliations of Canthium species placed under Pyrostria group B sensu Bridson (Vanguerieae, Rubiaceae) inferred from morphology and molecular data
© Alejandro et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 21 November 2013
- Accepted: 5 August 2014
- Published: 11 September 2014
Pyrostria sensu lato (s.l.) is regarded as one of the polyphyletic group within Vanguerieae formerly comprising of Pyrostria sensu stricto (s.s.), Pyrostria group A and Pyrostria group B delineated by the number of locules and geographical occurrence. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies within the genus have narrowed its circumscription that resulted in the merging of Pyrostria group A and Pyrostria s.s. Although some species of Pyrostria group B were already transferred to Pyrostria s.s. and Psydrax based on morphology, other representatives of the group remain unsettled.
Bayesian and parsimony analysis of the combined ITS (nrDNA) and trnL-F (cpDNA) datasets showed a well-supported clade of the whole Vanguerieae containing four Philippine endemic representatives of Pyrostria group B. The placement of Canthium oligophlebium, Canthium obovatifolium and Canthium ramosii within Pyrostria s.s. (PP = 0.99; BS = 85%) is robustly supported likewise the affiliation of C. gynochthodes with Psydrax (PP = 0.94; BS = 85%). Morphological features shared by our species with Pyrostria s.s. and Psydrax further supports our molecular data.
Our study supports the earlier hypothesis that Canthium oligophlebium, C. obovatifolium and C. ramosii should be placed under Pyrostria s.s. except for C. gynochthodes that grouped with Psydrax. Four new combinations are proposed in this study. The generic affiliations of other species of Pyrostria group B should be reinvestigated towards a more natural classfication in Vanguerieae.
- Bayesian analysis
The tribe Vanguerieae has long been regarded as monophyletic since it is easily delineated from the rest of Rubiaceae by the presence of a unique type of pollen presenter above the style (Verdcourt ; Bridson ). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the tribe (Lantz et al. ; Lantz and Bremer , ) support previous classifications of Bridson (, , ) in reinstating Keetia E. Phillips and Psydrax Gaertn. and raising Canthium subg. Afrocanthium Bridson to a genus level. Meanwhile, Vangueria Juss. was recircumscribed and is distinguished from its close relatives by having inflorescences borne from where leaves have fallen, small bracteoles in secondary branch and large fruit with 2 to 5 locules. The genus Canthium was regarded as highly polyphyletic and redelimited to include species with supraaxillary spines.
Although major evolutionary lineages and new generic limits have been established within Vanguerieae utilizing morphology and molecular data, there are still understudied species. When Bridson () reinstated the genus Pyrostria Comm. ex A. Juss., she lumped all Pyrostria species and representatives of Canthium with pair of persistent connate bracts (bracteate species) under Pyrostria s.l. and suggested informal groups (Pyrostria s.s., Pyrostria group A and Pyrostria group B) based on the number of locules and geographical occurrence. Both Pyrostria s.s. (pluri-locular ovary) and Pyrostria group A (bilocular ovary) have unisexual flowers and well represented in Madagascar, the latter extends from Africa to Arabia. Meanwhile, Pyrostria group B shares characters with Pyrostria group A in having unisexual flowers, bilocular ovaries, broad corolla tube, and 4-5 corolla lobes but the former radiates as far as SE Asia. The polyphyly of Pyrostria s.l. was initially addressed by Lantz and Bremer () in recovering a clade composed mainly of dioecious species but failed to discussed further this group due to the poor internal support. Razafimandimbison et al. () established a new generic delimitations using molecular data within the dioecious Vanguerieae by lumping species from Pyrostria group A to Pyrostria s.s. Their study, however, failed to include any species under Pyrostria group B and made an assumption that this group belongs to Pyrostria s.s. due to the presence of paired bracts which is a typical character for this genus. In an earlier study based on morphology, Utteridge and Davis () transferred two SE Asian Canthium species belonging to Pyrostria group B (C. brunnescens Craib and C. cochinchinense Pierre ex Pit. in H.Lecomte) to Pyrostria s.s. Recently, Alejandro et al. () transferred the Philippine endemic C. subsessifolium (Merr.) Merr. to Pyrostria. In contrast, Plectronia amplifolia Elmer informally placed under Pyrostria group B was transferred to Psydrax (Ruhsam et al. ).
There are still left unresolved endemic Philippine species placed under Pyrostria group B probably associated with Pyrostria such as C. brunneum (Merr.) Merr., C. ellipticum (Merr.) Merr., C. gynochthodes Baill., C. megacarpum (Merr.) Merr., C. obovatifolium (Merr.) Merr., C. oligophlebium (Merr.) Merr., C. ramosii (Merr.) Merr., and C. subcapitatum (Merr.) Merr. Available herbarium materials of these species are scarce and lack reproductive parts for confirmation. In this study, four species of Canthium informally placed under Pyrostria group B: C. gynochthodes, C. obovatifolium, C. oligophlebium, and C. ramosii were collected and challenged their phylogenetic positions within Vanguerieae utilizing molecular sequence data. Furthermore, type specimens were meticulously examined to confirm our molecular results. The present study is a good contribution in understanding a more robust phylogenetic evolutionary trends and lineages within the tribe.
This study is based on the examination of herbarium sheets from various herbaria as well as field observation. Canthium gynochthodes, C. obovatifolium, C. oligophlebium and C. ramosii were collected based on their type protologues. Collected samples (herbarium specimens and preserved reproductive structures in 70% ethanol) were deposited at the USTH for accessioning. Leaf samples were dried in silica-gel for DNA extraction (Chase and Hills ).
Genomic DNA was extracted from silica gel-dried leaf samples using the DNeasy Plant Minikit (Qiagen, Germany). The entire ITS region (including the 5.8S gene) was amplified and sequenced using the primer pair P17F/26-82R and P16F/P25R (Popp and Oxelman ). Meanwhile, primer pair c/f were used for both amplification and sequencing of the trnL-F region (Taberlet et al. ). DNA amplification was carried out following the work of Alejandro et al. (, ). Amplified DNA was purified using the QIA-quick Purification Kit (Qiagen, Germany). Purified DNA was sent to MACROGEN Inc., Seoul, South Korea for sequencing.
Nucleotide sequence database accession numbers of taxa used in this study
GenBank/EMBL Accession Number
Afrocanthium burttii (Bullock) Lantz
Afrocanthium gilfillanii (N.E. Br.) Lantz
Afrocanthium keniense (Bullock) Lantz
Afrocanthium lactescens (Hiern) Lantz
Afrocanthium mundianum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Lantz
Afrocanthium parasiebenlistii (Bridson) Lantz
Afrocanthium pseudoverticillatum (S. Moore) Lantz
Afrocanthium siebenlistii (K. Krause) Lantz
Canthium ciliatum (D. Dietr.) Kuntze
Canthium coromandelicum (Brum. f.) Alston
Canthium glaucum Hiern ssp. glaucum
Canthium gynochthodes 1
Canthium inerme (L.f.) Kuntze
Canthium mrimaense (Verdc.) Lantz
Canthium obovatifolium (Merr.) Merr.2
Canthium oligocarpum Hiern ssp. Captum (Bullock) Bridson
Canthium oligophlebium (Merr.) Merr.3
Canthium ramosii (Merr.) Merr.4
Fadogia ancylantha Schweinf.
Fadogia arenicola K.Schum. & K.Krause
Fadogia tetraquetra K. Schum. & K. Krause
Fadogia triphylla Baker
Keetia gueinzii (Sond.) Bridson
Keetia lukei Bridson
Keetia venosa (Oliv.) Bridson
Keetia zanzibarica (Klotzsch) Bridson ssp. zanzibarica
Psydrax kraussioides (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax livida (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax locuples (K. Schum.) Bridson
Psydrax parviflora (Afzel.) Bridson
Pyrostria ampijoroense (Arènes) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer
Pyrostria hystrix (Bremek.) Bridson
Pyrostria major (A. Rich. ex DC.) Cavaco
Pyrostria orbicularis A. Rich. ex DC.
Pyrostria phyllantoidea (Baillon) Bridson
Pyrostria revoluta (Balf. f.) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer
Pyrostria sarodranensis Cavaco
Pyrostria serpentina Lantz, Klack. & Razafim.
Vangueria infausta Burchell
Vangueria proschii Briq.
Vangueria parvifolia Sond.
Ixora coccinea L.
Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. & Thonn.
Bayesian inference (BI) was used to estimate phylogenetic positions of the Philippine endemic Canthium species. The analysis was carried out using the MrBayes v.3.1.2p software (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist ; Ronquist and Huelsenbeck ; Altekar et al. ). Model selection for the best-performing evolutionary models were determined under three model selection criteria: a) Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Akaike ), b) AICc (seconder order criterion of AIC, necessary for smaller samples) and c) the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) (Schwartz ). The selected models were HKY and GTR + G for the ITS and trnL-F, respectively. In analyzing single marker, the best performing model was selected and one million generation was considered with a sample frequency of 1000 and four parallel chains. For combined analyses, model selection as well as the settings is similar with that of the single-marker analysis, however there were a total of three million running generations. Clades with posterior probability (PP) exceeding 0.95 were regarded as strongly supported.
Parsimony analysis was conducted using PAUP version4.0b (Swofford ). Heuristic search was carried out to determine the most parsimonious trees utilizing a tree-bisection reconnection (TBR) branch swapping using 10,000 random addition sequences, with MULTREES option on. Consistency index (Kluge and Farris ) and retention index (Farris ) were calculated to determine if the data is far from being homoplasious. Bootstrapping was determined using 10,000 replicates, MULTREES option off, TBR branch swapping, and five random addition sequences. Clades receiving greater than 90% were considered strongly supported.
Matrix characteristics of separate and combined datasets
Number of taxa
Number of included characters
Number of informative characters
The tree topologies of the separate ITS (PP = 1.00; BS = 100%) and trnL-F (PP = 0.89; BS = 90%) analyses (trees not shown) revealed a monophyletic Vanguerieae. Both trees resolved the phylogenetic positions of C. obovatifolium, C. oligophlebium and C. ramosii in Pyrostria clade with high support in ITS (PP = 0.96; BS = 89%) and trnL-F (PP = 1.00; BS = 85%). However, both separate analyses failed to resolve the placement of C. gynochthodes within the tribe and polytomies were observed for members of Canthium s.s and Psydrax.
Generic affiliations of species under Pyrostria group B
The results presented above clearly shows the polyphyly of Canthium as earlier observed by Lantz et al. (), Lantz and Bremer (, ) and Razafimandimbison et al. (). The four Canthium (C. gynochthodes, C. obovatifolium, C. oligophlebium and C. ramosii) should be excluded from Canthium s.s. since these species are spineless.
The phylogenetic position of C. obovatifolium, C. oligophlebium and C. ramosii within the Pyrostria clade was already anticipated due to the presence of a persistent, basally paired, connate to acuminate bracts as observed in our recent collections and available herbarium sheets. The synapomorphic characters of Pyrostria such as dioecious sexuality and fleshy corolla with trichomes in the throat (Lantz and Bremer ) were also observed in our sampled Canthium species. The placement of these three Canthium species in Pyrostria s.l. was already suggested by Bridson () but she was unsure of the placement in the genus due to their geographical occurrence falling outside the known range, i.e. at that time Pyrostria was considered to be a predominately Afro-Madagascan genus.
Although Pyrostria is mostly represented in Africa, Ruhsam et al. () mentioned that the presence of SE Asian Pyrostria could probably be a disjunct part of their African relatives. There is a possibility that species under this genus may have undergone long range dispersal from Africa to Asia as in the case of Mussaenda L. (Alejandro et al. ).
Meanwhile, the phylogenetic placement of C. gynochthodes within Psydrax does not support the earlier suggestion of Bridson () in placing the species under Pyrostria s.l.. Bridson may have assigned this SE Asian species under Pyrostria group B due to the presence of bracts which resembles that of Pyrostria although Baillon () did not mention the occurrence of this character. However, we examined herbarium sheets of C. gynochthodes [Gaerlan, F.J.M 0542753 (L, PNH); Romero, E.M. 0542751 (L, PNH); Soejarto, D.D. 0219674 (L, PNH); Arriola and Alejandro, 12442 (PNH, USTH); Arriola and Alejandro, 11057 (PNH, USTH)] and revealed that bracts exist in younger inflorescences but totally absent in older ones. The presence of bracts on young inflorescences of C. gynochthodes will not affect its close relatedness with Psydrax. According to Bridson () bracts may be present in some representatives of Psydrax, however, it is distinctive from the paired connate bracts of Pyrostria which are rare in Vanguerieae. The presence of bracts is not a cardinal character to delimit Psydrax. For instance, Bridson () mentioned of the occurrence of bracts in the Indian Psydrax umbellata (Whit.) Bridson and unnamed Malayan species. Furthermore, examination of C. gynochthodes revealed that it posseses other diagnostic features of Psydrax such as coriaceous leaf blades, keeled stipules with truncate to triangular stipular base and falcate stipular apex, reflexed anthers, long style always exceeding the corolla tube, longer than wide stigmatic knob, cartilaginous seed and a very shallow to nearly inconspicuous apical crest without a lid-like area in the pyrene (Bridson ; Cheek and Sonke ). Additionally, the occurrence of a unique insertion of 40 bp in the trnL-F region of Psydrax that is non-alignable with other species of Vanguerieae (Lantz and Bremer ) exists in C. gynochthodes.
The close relatedness of species placed under Pyrostria group B with Pyrostria s.s. and Psydrax are supported by morphology and molecular data. Therefore, it is necessary to recollect the remaining species of Pyrostria group B to determine their correct generic affiliations within the tribe.
Pyrostria obovatifolia (Merr.) Wong, Magdaleno & Alejandro, comb. nov. Basionym: Canthium obovatifolium (Merr.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 35 (1928) 8. Plectronia obovatifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. C12 (1917) 167. Philippines, Luzon, Tayabas Prov. Mount Dalindingan, Sept. 1916, Ramos and Edano 26526 (holotype: PNH destroyed; lectotype: designated here K!; isolectotypes: US, HUH) (Figure 2A).
Shrub to small tree less than 3 m high; branches terete to a more or less quadrangular and glabrous. Leaves obovate, 3.5-7.5 × 1.0-3.0 cm, glabrous on both sides; apex rounded; base acute to acuminate; visible lateral nerves 3 to 4 on each side of the midrib; petiole 2.5-8.0 mm, glabrous. Stipules triangular to broadly ovate, 5.0-6.0 × 1.0 mm, glabrous on both sides. Female inflorescences axillary on 3.0-5.5 mm long peduncles, 6-flowered; peduncular bracts present, 3.0-5.5 mm long, triangular to broadly triangular, glabrous on both sides, enclosing the young inflorescence; pedicels erect, 3.0-4.0 mm long at flowering. Female flowers: calyx limb glabrous; tube 1.2- 2.5 mm long; lobes acuminate, 0.2 × 0.4 mm. Corolla 5-merous, white, glabrous outside; tube tubular, 0.8-1.2 mm long, hairs present at the throat; lobes broadly triangular, 2.0-2.5 × 1.0-1.2 mm, recurved. Stamens exerted, attached to corolla tube; anthers narrowly ovate to ovate, 0.3 mm long, exserted. Style including stigmatic knob 3.0-3.9 mm long; stigmatic knob 1 mm long, with a shallow cleft above, style not recessed into the stigmatic head; disk glabrous. Ovary 2-locular. Male flower unknown. Fruits ovoid 8.5-10.5 mm, glabrous.
Distribution:-Luzon Island: Ilocos Norte, Quezon
Habitat:-In secondary forest; 200-350 m altitude.
Phenology:- Flowering from March to June; Fruiting May to December
Taxonomic notes: This species approaches P. subsessifolia by its elliptic to ovate leaf shape but differs by its less conspicuous lateral nerves, shorter bracts and non- keeled fruits.
Pyrostria oligophlebia (Merr.) Pacia, Quiogue & Alejandro, comb. nov. Basionym: Canthium oligophlebium (Merr.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 35 (1928) 8. Plectronia oligophlebia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 17 (1921) 442. Philippines, Luzon, Rizal Prov. Mount Susong Dalaga, Aug. 1917, Ramos and Edano 29342 (holotype, PNH destroyed; lectotype: designated here US; isolectotype: HUH, K !) (Figure 2B)
Shrub to small tree, less than 5.0 m high; branches quadrangular to more or less terete and glabrous. Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong, 3.0-5.5 × 1.0-2.0 cm, glabrous on both sides; apex acute; base acute; visible lateral nerves 2 to 4 on each side of the midrib; petiole 0.7-1.0 mm, glabrous. Stipules broadly triangular to ovate, 1.0-2.0 × 1.0 mm, glabrous on both sides. Female inflorescences axillary on a glabrous peduncle less than 2 mm long, 7-12 flowered; peduncular bracts present, 2.5-3.0 mm long, triangular to broadly triangular, glabrous on both sides, enclosing the young inflorescence; pedicels erect, 4.0-5.0 mm long at flowering, persistent. Female flowers: calyx limb glabrous 2-2.7 mm long; lobes shortly toothed, 0.1 × 0.3 mm. Corolla 4-merous, white, glabrous outside; tube tubular, 0.8-1.2 mm long, hairs present at the throat; lobes broadly ovate, 2.0-2.5 × 1.0-1.2 mm. Stamens attached to corolla tube adjacent to the throat; anthers ovate, 0.3 mm long, exserted. Style including stigmatic knob 1.0-2.5 mm long; stigmatic knob 1 mm long, with a shallow cleft above; disk glabrous. Ovary 2-locular. Male flower unknown. Fruits ovoid 6.0-6.5 mm, glabrous with distinct indentation when dry.
Distribution:-Luzon Island: Rizal; Mindanao Island: Davao
Habitat:-In secondary forest; 500-900 m altitude.
Phenology:- Flowering from March to December; Fruiting from Septmber to February
Taxonomic notes: The smaller and fewer nerved leaves of P. oligophlebia approaches P. gynochthodes. However, P. oligophlebia differs from the latter by having persistent pair of bracts, many-flowered inflorescences and a longer petioles, peduncles and pedicel.
Pyrostria ramosii (Merr.) Arriola, Paraguison & Alejandro, comb. nov.
Basionym: Canthium ramosii (Merr.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 35 (1928) 9. Plectronia ramosii Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 7 (1921) 443. Philippines, Luzon, Tayabas Prov., Mount Umiray, June 1917, Ramos and Edano 28973 (holotype, PNH destroyed; lectotype: designated here NY!; isolectotype: K!) (Figure 2C)
Tree less than 9 m high; branches terete, glabrous. Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong, 2.5-9.5 × 1.5-3.9 cm, glabrous on both sides; apex triangular to acuminate; base attenuate; visible lateral nerves 3 to 4 on each side of the midrib; petiole 1.5-2.0 mm, glabrous. Stipules triangular, 3.5-4.0 × 1.5-2.0 mm, glabrous on both sides. Inflorescences 4 flowered umbels; pedicels erect, 6.5-7.0 mm, persistent glabrous, peduncular bracts present, 0.5-1.5 mm long, triangular, glabrous on both sides. Infructiscence glabrous; stalk glabrous. Fruits ovoid to didymous 6.5-8.5 mm, 2 -celled, glabrous.
Distribution:-Luzon Island: Quezon
Habitat:-In secondary forest; 200-350 m altitude.
Phenology:- Fruiting August to December
Taxonomic notes: Pyrostria oligophlebia and P. ramosii closely resemble each other due to their oblong shape leaf with acuminate apex. However, the latter have longer peduncles and few (2-4) flowered umbellate inflorescences as compared to the numerous (7-12) flowered inflorescence of the former.
Psydrax gynochthodes (Baill.) Arriola, Yayen & Alejandro, comb. nov.
Basionym: Plectronia gynochthodes (Baill.) Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 536. Canthium gynochthodes Baill., Adansonia 12 (1879) 199. Philippines, Luzon, Batangas Prov., 1917, Cuming 1848 (holotype, K!) (Figure 2D)
Tree, less than 7 m tall; branches flattened to subterete, glabrous. Stipules glabrous on both sides, triangular to ovate, 2-4.5 mm, keel prominent on the abaxial side. Petioles 1.0-5.0 × 0.3-0.5 mm, glabrous; leaf blades leathery, elliptic to elliptic-oblong or obovate, 3-8.5 × 1.5-5 cm, base acute to broadly acute, apex obtuse, glabrous throughout, glossy; lateral nerves 3-4 on each side of the midrib, domatia present. Inflorescences axillary, 10-12(-several) flowered, glabrous; peduncle 0.8-2.5 mm, glabrous; pedicel 4.0-10.0 mm, puberulent. Calyx tube infundibuliform, 2-3 × 2.0-2.5 mm, glabrous; lobes triangular 1.5-2.0 mm. Corolla tube infundibuliform, 1.0-1.5 mm, glabrous outside, with ring of white hairs inside; lobes 4, triangular, glabrous outside and inside. Anthers 4, reflexed. Style 2-6 mm, exceeding corolla tube, stigmatic-knob longer than wide, 0.3 × 0.2 mm, bifid. Ovary bilocular, 1-ovule per locule. Fruits ovoid to didymous, distinctly broader than long, 7.5-8.0 × 9-10 mm, green when young, glabrous, calyx limb persistent; Seeds 2, obliquely ovoid, ventrally flattened, 2-5.5 × 3 mm, apical crest very shallow to nearly inconspicuous, pyrene cartilaginous.
Distribution:- Philippines, Taiwan
Habitat:-In secondary forest; 500-900 m altitude.
Phenology:- Flowering from March to June; Fruiting from June to December
Taxonomic notes: Psydrax gynochthodes is comparable with P. obovatifolia, P. oligophlebia and P. ramosii. However it is delineated from the three species due to the absence of persistent acuminate-connate bracts. For the above reason, we do not agree with the observation of Bridson () that P. gyncochthodes is closely associated with P. villarii Vidal and that the two species should be synonymize. Moreover, P. gynochthodes can be distinguised from the Philippine P. amplifolia by its smaller, thicker and darker glossy green leaves, umbellate to cymose inflorescences, longer peduncles and smaller fruits.
The generic affiliations of four species previously hypothesized under Pyrostria group B have been resolved based on morphology and molecular sequence data. We formally proposed three novel combinations in Pyrostria and a Psydrax. Other species of Pyrostria group B should be reinvestigated towards a more natural classfication in Vanguerieae. Furthermore, large number of Pyrostria and bracteate species temporarily placed under Canthium s.l should be sampled to fully understand the evolutionary dispersal of the genus.
GJDA and AHA drafted the manuscript; All authors participated in sample collection, molecular work and taxonomic treatment. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We thank the following herbaria and staff for providing loans and/or access to collections: K, L, NY, P, PNH, US and USTH. The authors thank the Research Center for Natural & Applied Sciences (RCNAS), University of Santo Tomas and the Commission on Higher Education, Philippine Higher Education Research Network (CHED-PHERNEt) for the funding.
- Akaike H: A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Autom Control 1974, 19: 716–723. 10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alejandro GJD, Razafimandimbison SG, Liede-Schumann S: Polyphyly of Mussaenda inferred from ITS and trnT-F data and its implication for generic limits in Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae). Am J Bot 2005, 92: 544–557. 10.3732/ajb.92.3.544View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alejandro GJD, Meve U, Mouly A, Thiv M, Liede-Schumann S: Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Philippine endemic Villaria Rolfe (Rubiaceae). Plant Syst Evol 2011, 296: 1–20. 10.1007/s00606-011-0472-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alejandro GJD, Arenas EH, Cremen CM, Arriola AH: A new record of Pyrostria (Vanguerieae-Rubiaceae) from the Philippines inferred from molecular and morphological data. Phil J Syst Bio 2013, 8: 1–12.Google Scholar
- Alterkar G, Dwarkadas S, Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F: Parallel metropolis coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo for Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Bioinformatics 2004, 20: 407–415. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg427View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baillon HE (1879) Canthium gynochthodes. Adansonia 12:199 Baillon HE (1879) Canthium gynochthodes. Adansonia 12:199Google Scholar
- Bridson DM: The reinstatement of Psydrax (Rubiaceae, subfam. Cinchonoideae tribe Vanguerieae) and a revision of the African species. Kew Bull 1985, 40: 687–725. 10.2307/4109853View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bridson DM: The reinstatement of the African genus Keetia (Rubiaceae subfam. Cinchonoideae, tribe Vanguerieae). Kew Bull 1986, 41: 965–994. 10.2307/4102996View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bridson DM: Studies in African Rubiaceae- Vanguerieae: a new circumscription of Pyrostria and a new subgenus, Canthium subgen. Bullockia . Kew Bull 1987, 42: 611–639. 10.2307/4110068View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bridson DM: The genus Canthium (Rubiaceae- Vanguerieae) in tropical Africa. Kew Bull 1992, 47: 353–401. 10.2307/4110569View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chase MW, Hills HH: Silica gel: an ideal material for preservation of leaf samples for DNA studies. Taxon 1991, 40: 215–220. 10.2307/1222975View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheek M, Sonke B: Psydrax bridsoniana (Rubiaceae), a new species of tree from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 2004, 59: 605–608. 10.2307/4110919View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Farris JS: The retention index and the rescaled consistency index. Cladistics 1989, 5: 417–419. 10.1111/j.1096-0031.1989.tb00573.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F: MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 2001, 8: 754–755. 10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kluge AG, Farris JS: Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Syst Zool 1969, 18: 1–32. 10.2307/2412407View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lantz H, Bremer B: Phylogeny inferred from morphology and DNA data: characterizing well-supported groups in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 2004, 146: 257–283. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00338.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lantz H, Bremer B: Phylogeny of the complex Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) genera Fadogia , Rytigynia , and Vangueria with close relatives and a new circumsumption of Vangueria. Plant Syst Evol 2005, 253: 159–183. 10.1007/s00606-005-0313-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lantz H, Andreasen K, Bremer B: Nuclear rDNA ITS used to construct the first phylogeny of Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae). Plant Syst Evol 2002, 230: 173–187. 10.1007/s006060200003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Popp M, Oxelman B: Inferring the history of the polyploid Silene aegaea (Caryophyllaceae) using plasmid and homoeologous nuclear DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 2001, 20: 474–481. 10.1006/mpev.2001.0977View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rambaut A (1996) Se-Al v1.0a1. . Accessed 15 May 2011, [http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/seal/] Rambaut A (1996) Se-Al v1.0a1. . Accessed 15 May 2011
- Razafimandimbison SG, Lantz H, Mouly A, Bremer B: Evolutionary trends, major lineages and new generic limits in the dioecious group of the tribe Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae): insights into the evolution of functional dioecy. Ann Mo Bot Gard 2009, 96: 161–181. 10.3417/2006191View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP: MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 2003, 19: 1572–1574. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruhsam M, Govaerts R, Davis AP: Nomenclatural changes in preparation for a World Rubiaceae Checklist. Bot J Linn Soc 2008, 157: 115–124. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00779.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz G: Estimating the dimensions of a model. Ann Stat 1978, 6: 461–464. 10.1214/aos/1176344136View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Swofford DL: PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) version 40b. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA; 2000.Google Scholar
- Taberlet P, Gielly L, Pautou G, Bouvet J: Universal primers for amplication of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Pl Mol Biol 1991, 17: 1105–1109. 10.1007/BF00037152View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Utteridge TMA, Davis AP: Two new combinations in Pyrostria (Rubiaceae-Vanguerieae) from Thailand. Kew Bull 2009, 64: 751–752. 10.1007/s12225-009-9158-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Verdcourt B: Notes on African Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae. Kew Bull 1987, 42: 123–199. 10.2307/4109900View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.