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Fig. 1 | Botanical Studies

Fig. 1

From: Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan

Fig. 1

Stem transverse sections of seven Piper species. a P. arborescens, showing only one mucilage canal (mc) in the center of the pith, surrounded by nine medullary vascular bundles (mvb), a continuous sclerenchyma (scl) ring separating the two cycles of vascular bundles, and wide rays (r) separating the peripheral vascular bundles (pvb); approximately 30 pvb; pericycle (per) surrounding the phloem (ph). b, c P. betle. b Showing discontinuous scl ring, secondary growth of the mvb and pvb approximately 17 mvb and 37 pvb; periderm (pe) thick and grooved. c Deeply furrowed xylem (arrowhead) by secondary parenchyma proliferation (white star); approximately 13 mvb and 31 pvb, and rays become wider, separating the pvb. d P. kadsura, showing triangular phloem (ph), and rays (r) which composed of secondary parenchyma; approximately 8 mvb, and 21 pvb. e P. kawakamii, showing approximately 7 mvb, and 22 pvb separated by wide rays (r). f P. kwashoense, approximately 12 mvb and 34 pvb, and collenchyma (col) ring surrounding the peripheral regions. g P. sintenense, showing parenchyma (pa) occupying much of the pith volume, approximately 6 mvb and 22 pvb. h P. taiwanense, showing approximately 8–9 mvb, 21–26 pvb, and pericycle (per) surrounded the phloem (ph). Scale: Scale a = 1 mm; bd = 5 mm; e, f, h = 5 mm; g = 1 mm

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