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Table 2 Anatomical characteristics of Piper stems in Taiwan (transverse sections)

From: Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan

Characteristic Piper arborescens P. betle P. kadsura P. kawakamii P. kwashoense P. sintenense P. taiwanense
Shape Oblate Oblate Transversely elliptica Oblate Oblate Transversely elliptica Oblate
Phloem bundles Arcuate Rounded-elongate Triangular Arcuate Arcuate Arcuate Rectangular to triangular
Mvb number 9–13 12–19 5–11 6–7 12–14 4–7 6–9
Pvb number 30–31 30–40 15–23 21–22 34–41 16–23 21–26
Ray width (μm) 37–251 129–617 55–493 38–603 80–294 106–276 66–342
Vessel diameter (μm) 4–128 18–217 9–125 10–167 10–145 7–100 6–197
Vessel arrangement 2 2 2 1 1 2 1
Sclerenchyma ring 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
Furrowed xylem 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Parenchyma proliferation 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Mc 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
Mc dispersed in cortex 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Central mc in pith 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
Pericycle 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
  1. mvb medullary vascular bundles, pvb peripheral vascular bundles, vessel arrangement: 1 ring-porous secondary xylem, 2 diffuse-porous secondary xylem; sclerenchyma ring, 0 discontinuous, 1 continuous; furrowed xylem: 0 absent, 1 present; parenchyma proliferation, 0 absent, 1 present; mc mucilage canals, 0 absent, 1 present; mc in cortex: 0 absent, 1 present; central mc: 0 absent, 1 present; pericycle: 0 absent, 1 present