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Table 2 Life history characteristics of two species of Gagea from arid environments (Gagea graeca, G. bulbifera) compared with a species from temperate deciduous woodlands (G. lutea)

From: Studies of life history of Gagea graeca (Liliaceae) based on morphological and molecular methods

Species G. graeca n G. bulbifera n G. lutea n
Reference This study   Beisenova et al. (2015)   Schnittler et al. (2009), Pfeiffer et al. (2011)  
Morphology
Bulb size, flowering plants 3.01 ± 0.63 291 2.55 ± 0.48 291 8.94 ± 1.62 239
Threshold (mm bulb diam.) for
 Flowers 2.17 ± 0.05 405 1.90 ± 0.13 417 6.94 ± 0.04 505
 Bulbils 2.80 ± 0.16 405 4.96 ± 11.39 417 2.63 ± 0.21 505
 Difference −0.63 405 −3.06 417 4.31 505
Bulbils per plant showing bulbils (range) 1.01 ± 0.10 (1–2) 194 1.00 ± 0.00 26 8.65 ± 5.31 (1–23) 226
Average bulbil size 1.26 ± 0.39 194 1.11 ± 0.48 26 1.49 ± 0.42 226
Switch present? No 405 No 417 Yes 505
Seed set
Flowers per plant 1.9 ± 1.1 (1–7) 177 1.4 ± 0.9 (1–9) 230 3.2 ± 1.5 (1–8) 217
Capsules per fruiting plant 1.2 ± 0.6 (1–4) 123 1.4 ± 0.9 (0–9) 210 3.2 ± 1.5 (0–8) 216
Mean seed weight (µg) 73 ± 22 24 80 ± 20 10 1650 ± 340 10
Seeds per flowering plant 68 ± 79 (0–445) 177 119 ± 90 (0–827) 230 41 ± 30 (0–159) 217
Seeds per fruiting plant 98 ± 77 (0–445) 123 130 ± 86 (0–827) 210 41 ± 30 (0–159) 216
Seeds per capsule 80 ± 39 (0–184) 123 99 ± 40 (0–224) 210 12 ± 6 (0–33) 216
Resource allocation
N-content (µg/mg dry weight)
 Replacement bulbs 27.9 ± 2.6 9 23.9 ± 1.8 5 8.3 ± 3.5 10
 Seeds 41.2 ± 6.6 24 22.1 ± 1.8 5 25.7 ± 1.9 10
N investment (%) into
 Replacement bulbs 67.1 9 36.4 5 25 10
 Vegetative structures 3.8 9 21.1 5 ca. 60 10
 Basal bulbils 3.9 0.5 1
 Axillary bulbils 4.5 5
 Seeds 25.2 24 36.4 5 > 15 10
AFLP data
Diversity R = (G−1)/(N−1) 0.95 110 1.00 10 0.56 141
Proportion of clonal plants 0.09 110 0.00 10 0.62 141
  1. Mean values ± SD and ranges (in parentheses) are given as well as the number of plants or structures (n) investigated. For seed weight, 100 seeds were counted and weighed together. Due to the switch in G. lutea (flowering plants do not produce bulbils any more), investment in bulbils and flowers cannot be compared directly for this species. Data sets for morphology, seed set, resource allocation and AFLP analyses include different plants