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Table 1 Temporal variations in the soil extractable elements of litchi orchards that were maintained under conventional (CA) and sustainable (SA) agricultural practices

From: Agricultural management and cultivation period alter soil enzymatic activity and bacterial diversity in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchards

Soils Elements
P K Ca Mg Fe Mn Cu Zn
mg kg− 1 soil
CA1 2.3 ± 1.0bc 211.0 ± 54.7b 583.3 ± 143.1a 160.3 ± 18.5a 453.3 ± 79.0a 104.3 ± 47.5a 4.0 ± 2.1a 3.5 ± 0.5b
SA1 1.9 ± 0.7c 145.1 ± 52.3b 703.5 ± 371.1a 195.9 ± 70.5a 428.1 ± 15.3ab 114.5 ± 38.1a 2.9 ± 1.5a 4.0 ± 1.3b
CA2 4.3 ± 1.2ab 251.3 ± 88.2b 882.6 ± 292.8a 174.1 ± 29.9a 419.2 ± 59.7ab 77.0 ± 42.5a 5.7 ± 1.8a 7.0 ± 1.0a
SA2 3.4 ± 1.2abc 139.0 ± 47.1b 614.9 ± 371.0a 160.7 ± 73.3a 471.1 ± 21.1a 73.0 ± 22.8a 4.3 ± 1.9a 4.9 ± 2.2ab
CA3 4.7 ± 1.5a 543.0 ± 504.3a 911.5 ± 411.2a 149.5 ± 16.7a 378.2 ± 64.6b 84.2 ± 22.5a 5.1 ± 1.9a 7.0 ± 0.7a
SA3 4.0 ± 1.7ab 138.3 ± 39.6b 633.3 ± 387.9a 144.6 ± 67.5a 420.5 ± 10.7ab 99.5 ± 47.8a 4.4 ± 2.2a 5.5 ± 2.4ab
  1. 1, 2 and 3 indicate successive trimester samplings carried out on October 2016, January 2017 and April 2017, respectively. The extractable elements including P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Results are shown as mean ± standard deviation