Changes in PhaPR1 expression and CymMV accumulation when PhaNPR1 is silenced. PhaNPR1 expression was transiently knocked down in the leaves of P. aphrodite subsp. formosana using Agrobacteria carrying short hairpin constructs. The two constructs used carry hpNPR1-1 and hpNPR1-2, respectively, and the leaves of the control group were only with CymMV infection and vector groups were inoculated with Agrobacteria carrying the empty vector. The mock treatment was inoculation of 1% [v/v] ethanol. The RNA samples were collected at seven days post inoculation. Data are the mean ± SD of 3 biological replicates. Expression fold changes are relative to that of the mock treatment for PhaPR1 and PhaNPR1, and to that of the control for CymMV concentration with UBIQUITIN level as an internal reference.