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Table 2 Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fern extracts against Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ; Micrococcus luteus ) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa )

From: Antibacterial, anti-glucosidase, and antioxidant activities of selected highland ferns of Malaysia

  MIC value (mg/mL)
  S. aureus M. luteus E. coli P. aeruginosa
Leaf extract     
C. latebrosa 8.33a > 50 > 50 > 50
D. curranii 12.50b 12.50a > 50 > 50
G. truncata 8.33a 12.50a 12.50a 12.50a
P. triloba 1.56c 1.04b 6.25b 0.78b
Rhizome extract     
C. latebrosa > 50 > 50 > 50 > 50
D. curranii 6.25a 8.33c > 50 > 50
G. truncata 5.21d 6.25c > 50 > 50
P. triloba 4.17d 2.60b 12.50a 3.13c
Ampicillin 0.04e 0.02d 0.02c 0.31d
  1. Values presented are mean values of three replicates. Values in the same column that are followed by different superscript letters are significantly different (p < 0.05), as determined using the Fisher’s LSD test. MIC values > 50 mg/mL were not included in the statistical test.