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Table 2 Comparison of the types of calcium oxalate crystals and content of the toxic substance found in plant organs

From: Occurrence, types and distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in leaves and stems of some species of poisonous plants

Species Types of crystals in leaves Types of crystals in stems Content of toxic substances Poisonous organs
Cynanchum acutum L. Druse and prismatic Druse Vincetoksin glycoside (Öztürk et al. 2008) Entire plant (Öztürk et al. 2008)
Tribulus terrestris L. Druse Druse Three sapogenins (Diosgenin, ruscogenin, gitogenin) (Fuller and McClintock 1986) Entire Plant (Fuller and McClintock 1986)
Hedera helix L. Druse Druse Hederin glycoside, Hederagenin, and other triterpene saponins, sesquiterpenes, falcarinol (Fuller and McClintock 1986; Wink 2009) Entire plant, especially leaves and fruits (Wink 2009)
Saponaria officinalis L. Druse Druse Saponin Glycoside (triterpene saponins) (Wink 2009) Entire plant especially seeds (Muca et al. 2012)
Humulus lupulus L. Druse Druses and Crystal sands Non poisonous (Baytop 1999) Non poisonous (Baytop 1999)
Nerium oleander L. Druse Druse and Prismatic Oleandrin glycoside and several other cardenolides (Wink 2009) Entire plant (Wink 2009)
Hypericum perforatum L. Absent Absent Hypericin , Glyco-Alkaloid (Fuller and McClintock 1986) Entire plant, especially leaves and flowers (Fuller and McClintock 1986)
Aristolochia clematitis L. Absent Absent Aristolochic acid and related alkaloids, aristolohin alkaloid magnoflorine (Wink 2009) Entire plant (Wink 2009)
Chelidonium majus L. Absent Absent Chelidonine, sanguinarine, berberine and other isoquinoline alkaloids (Wink 2009) All parts (Wink 2009)