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Table 1 Role of ascorbate in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance

From: Role of L-ascorbate in alleviating abiotic stresses in crop plants

Enzyme/protein Target plant Gene Gene source Type of genetic manipulation Ascorbate content Phenotypic changes Reference
GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase Tobacco GMPase Tomato Overexpression 2.0–4.0-fold increase Increased tolerance to temperature stress Wang et al. 2011
Phosphomannose Isomerase Arabidopsis PMI1 Arabidopsis RNAi 0.47–0.65-fold decrease No phenotypic changes under normal growth conditions in both mutants Maruta et al. 2008
  PMI2 T-DNA knockout No change  
Phosphomannomutase Tobacco NbPMM Tobacco VIGS Up to 3.0-fold decrease Qian et al. 2007
Arabidopsis NbPMM Tobacco VVMEE 0.2–0.5-fold increase
  AtPMM Arabidopsis Overexpression 0.25–0.33-fold increase Increased tolerance to MV stress
Tobacco PMM Acerola Overexpression 2.0-fold increase Badejo et al. 2009
VTC4/Myoinositol monophosphatase (IMP) Arabidopsis VTC4 T-DNA knockout 0.61–0.75-fold decrease 22.4% –34% decreases in myoinositol content Torabinejad et al. 2009
      Slow seed germination under control conditions
      Slightly hypersensitive to ABA and NaCl during seed germination
GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase Arabidopsis vtc5-1 and vtc5-2 Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout 0.2-fold decrease Plant growth retardation and bleaching of the cotyledons Dowdle et al. 2007
L-Galactose dehydrogenase Tobacco (BY–2 cells) L–GalLDH Tobacco Overexpression 1.5–2.0-fold increase Higher mitotic index in cells Tokunaga et al. 2005
      Reduced browning and cells death of cultures
      Increased tolerance to MV
L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase Tobacco (BY–2 cells) GLDH Tobacco Antisense downregulation 0.30-fold decrease Adversely effected plant cell division, growth and structure of plant cell Tabata et al. 2001
Tobacco RrGalLDH Rosa roxburghii Overexpression 2.1-fold increase Enhanced tolerance to salt stress Liu et al. 2013a
Monodehydroascorbate reductase Tobacco AtMDAR1 Arabidopsis Overexpression Up to 2.2-fold increase Enhanced tolerance to ozone, salt and PEG stresses Eltayeb et al. 2007
Tobacco Am-MDAR Avicennia marina Overexpression Up to 2.0-fold increase Increased tolerance to salt stress Kavitha et al. 2010
Tobacco MDAR-OX Arabidopsis Overexpression Up to 1.1-fold increase No change in Aluminium tolerance Yin et al. 2010
Dehydroascorbate reductase Tobacco DHAR-OX Arabidopsis Overexpression Up to 1.3-fold increase Increased tolerance to Al stress Yin et al. 2010
Tobacco DHAR Arabidopsis Overexpression 1.9–2.1-fold increase Enhanced tolerance to ozone, drought and salinity Eltayeb et al. 2006
Tobacco DHAR Wheat Overexpression 2.1-fold increase Increased ozone tolerance and NPR Chen and Gallie 2005
   Tobacco Antisense downregulation 0. 29-fold decrease Substantially reduced stomatal area and low NPR
Tobacco DHAR Human Overexpression No significant change Enhanced tolerance to low temperature and NaCl Kwon et al. 2003
Ascorbate peroxidase Tobacco tAPx Tobacco Overexpression No change Increased tolerance to MV and chilling stresses under light conditions Yabuta et al. 2002
   Tobacco/ Spinach Antisense downregulation Plants failed to grow
Arabidopsis HvAPX1 Barley Overexpression Increased tolerance to salt stress Xu et al. 2008
Arabidopsis OsAPXa and OsAPXb Rice Overexpression Increased tolerance to salt stress Lu et al. 2007
Tobacco CAPOA1 Pepper Overexpression Increased plant growth Sarowar et al. 2005
      Increased tolerance to MV stress
Tobacco BY-2 cells cAPX Arabidopsis Antisense downregulation No change Increased tolerance against heat and salt stresses Ishikawa et al. 2005
Tobacco StAPX Tomato Overexpression Improved seed germination Sun et al. 2010a
      Increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses
Rice Apx1/ Apx2 Rice RNAi (Apx1+ Apx2) Up to 1.5-fold decrease No change in plant growth and development Rosa et al. 2010
      Increased tolerance to aluminium
    RNAi (Apx1 or Apx2) Produced semi-dwarf phenotype
Rice OsAPx-R Rice RNAi Delayed plant development Lazzarotto et al. 2011
Rice OsAPXa Rice Overexpression Increased spikelet fertility under cold stress Sato et al. 2011
Rice Osapx2 Rice Overexpression Enhanced stress tolerance Zhang et al. 2013
      Sensitive to abiotic stresses
   T-DNA knockout Semi-dwarf seedlings, yellow-green leaves, leaf lesion-mimic and seed sterility
Alfalfa Osapx2 Rice Overexpression Increased salt resistance Guan et al. 2012
Tomato cAPX Pea Overexpression Enhanced tolerance to UV-B and heat stresses Wang et al. 2006
Tomato cAPX Pea Overexpression Enhanced tolerance to chilling and salt stresses Wang et al. 2005
Tomato LetAPX Tomato Antisense downregulation No significant change Transgenic plants photosynthetically less efficient and sensitive to chilling stress Duan et al. 2012b
Ascorbate oxidase Tobacco AAO Cucumber Overexpression No change Plants become susceptible to ozone Sanmartin et al. 2003
Tobacco AAO Cucumber Overexpression No change Increased drought tolerance due to reduced stomatal conductance Fotopoulos et al. 2008
Tobacco AAO Pumpkin Overexpression 2.0-fold increase in apoplastic ASA Number of smaller flowers significantly increased 6% to 14% reduction of in seed weight Pignocchi et al. 2003
   Tobacco Antisense downregulation 2.0-fold increase in apoplastic ASA No significant changes
Tobacco AAO Tobacco Overexpression Severe inhibition of germination and seed yield under high salinity Yamamoto et al. 2005
Tobacco AAO Tobacco Antisense downregulation Increased tolerance to salt stress Yamamoto et al. 2005
     Increased seed yield under salt stress
Arabidopsis AAO T-DNA knockout   Increased tolerance to salt stress
      Increased seed yield under salt stress
Myoinositol oxygenase Rice OsMIOX Rice Overexpression No change Increased drought tolerance Duan et al. 2012a
ASA mannose pathway regulator 1 Arabidopsis AMR1 T-DNA knockout 2.0–3.0-fold increase Increased ozone tolerance Zhang et al. 2009
  1. APx-R, APX-related; CAPOA1, Capsicum annuum ascorbate peroxidase-like 1 gene; MV, methyl viologen; NPR, net photosynthetic rate; PEG, polyethylene glycol; RNAi, RNA interference; VIGS, Virus-induced gene silencing; VVMEE, Viral-vector-mediated ectopic- expression.