Skip to main content

Table 1 Morphological characteristics of endocarps and flower parts in Menispermaceae in Taiwan

From: Endocarps of menispermaceous plants in Taiwan

Characters Cissampelos pareira L. var. hirsuta (DC.) Forman Cocculus laurifolius DC. Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC. Cyclea gracillima Diels Cyclea insularis (Makino) Hatusima Cyclea ochiaiana (Yamam.) S. F. Huang & T. C. Huang Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder & E. H. Wilson Stephania cephalantha Hayata Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers Stephania longa Lour. Stephania merrillii Diels Stephania tetrandra S. Moore Tinospora dentata Diels
Types Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Horseshoe Straight
Surface Rugose Reticulated Reticulated Scabrid Scabrid Scabrid Scabrid Short ridges Excavated excavated Excavated Excavated Excavated Scabrid
Length (mm) 3.4–3.5 4.3–5.2 3.1–3.8 2.7–2.9 4.2–4.8 4.1–4.2 4.5–6.3 5.1–5.5 4.7–5.7 5.0–5.3 5.8–6.5 9.1–10.3 4.8–5.0 8.0–8.8
Width (mm) 3.4–3.5 4.6–5.3 3.4–4.0 2.7–2.8 3.9–4.4 3.9–4.1 4.5–5.7 6.7–7.2 4.4–5.7 4.8–5.2 4.9–5.4 8.5–9.2 4.3–4.5 6.9–7.2
Thick (mm) 1.8–1.9 3.6–4.2 2.2–2.5 2.1–2.2 2.2–2.7 1.8–2.2 2.1–2.3 2.1–2.3 2.4–2.9 2.2–2.5 2.3–2.7 3.3–4.5 1.7–1.9 5.7–5.9
Lateral view
Row of ridges 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2–3
Number of transverse ridges Obscure Obscure 9 30 12 17
Number of transverse strips 9 10 14
Number of spines   15, 17 15, 23 13, 13 15, 20 Obscure
Perforated 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/1 1 0/1 1 0 0
Chamber 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vascular trace 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Aperture 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Condyle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Limbs 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
Dorsal view
Row of ridges 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
Number of spines 17, 17 25, 25 17, 17 20, 20 27 Numerous
Number of transverse ridges 7, 7 12, 12 17, 17
Number of transverse strips 9, 10 10, 11 12, 12
Groove 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Ventral view
Ventral trace 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Longitudinal aperture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Keeled at apex 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Flower parts
Androecium 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Style position 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
  1. 0 absent, 1 present, 0/1 absent/present; longitudinal aperture: 0 absent, 1 present; chamber 0 absent, 1 present; vascular trace: 0 absent, 1 present; condyle: 0 compressed, 1 chamber; limb: 0 equal in length, 1 unequal in length; groove: 0 absent, 1 present; dorsal convex: 0 absent, 1 present; keeled at apex: 0 absent, 1 present; androecium: 0 synandrium, 1 no synandrium; style position: 0 basal, 1 terminal