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Table 3 Results of three-way ANOVA (F-ratios) showing the effects of different materials (unburnt and burnt) (M) with different concentrations (C) of Phragmites australis litter extract on growth of Lactuca sativa seedling densities (D)

From: Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities

Factor df F ratio and probability
Above-ground biomass (AGB) Below-ground biomass (BGB) Total biomass AGB–BGB ratio Root length
Materials (M) 1 64.76*** 1.92ns 25.55*** 64.27*** 246.88***
Concentration (C) 2 10.54*** 50.81*** 9.71*** 93.17*** 180.34***
Density (D) 3 37.02*** 23.85*** 40.55*** 5.20** 154.91***
M × C 2 11.03*** 4.44* 4.55* 27.20*** 19.55***
M × D 3 7.41*** 1.57ns 3.41* 11.98*** 16.25***
C × D 6 6.91*** 3.78** 6.10*** 2.06ns 6.19***
M × C × D 6 1.00ns 1.34ns 1.01ns 2.96* 2.29*
Error 48      
Total 72      
  1. Data used as % of control. Level of significance: ***, **, * and ns indicate significant difference at P ≤ 0.001, P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05 and non-significant respectively