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Table 2 A summary of the frequency of Rhizoctonia-like fungi acquired from roots of orchids inhabiting the Itremo Massif of the Central Highlands of Madagascar during April–May 2013 (dry season)

From: Techniques for the collection, transportation, and isolation of orchid endophytes from afar: a case study from Madagascar

Growth habit Orchid Site Sample Fungus (# strains)
Lithophytic Angraecum coutrixii 1, 3 Seedling None
  Angraecum longicalcar 2 Mature None
  Angraecum magdalenae 3 Seedling None
  Angraecum protensum 1 Seedling
Mature
None
None
  Angraecum rutenbergianum 1 Seedling None
  Angraecum sororium 3 Seedling None
  Oeceoclades sp. 2 Mature None
Epiphytic Aerangis sp. 7 Seedling Ceratobasidium (3)
  Aerangus citrata 5 Seedling None
  Angraecum sp. 5 Seedling None
  Angraecum protensum 1 Seedling None
  Angraecum rutenbergianum 3 Seedling None
  Bulbophyllum sp. 3 Seedling None
  Jumellea denisfolliata 5 Seedling None
  Polystachya concreta 1 Seedling 1
Seedling 2
None
Tulasnella (7), Sebacina (6)
  Polystachya culturiformis 7 Seedling None
Terrestrial Benthamia sp. 1 Mature None
  Benthamia glaberrima 3 Mature None
  Benthamia rostratum 4 Juvenile Tulasnella (1)
  Calanthe sp. 7 Mature None
  Cynorkis gibbosa 7 Mature None
  Cynorkis purpurea 7 Seedling Ceratobasidium (7)
Tulasnella (3), Sebacina (1)
  Disa incarnata 3 Mature None
  Eulophia macra 2 Mature Tulasnella callospora (1)
  Graphorkis concolor 7 Mature Ceratobasidium (1)
  Habenaria sp. 1 Mature None
  Habenaria ambositrana 1 Juvenile None
3 Seedling Tulasnella (4), sebacina (1)
  Satyrium trinerve 4 Mature None
  Tylostigma sp. 4 Mature None
  Tylostigma nigrescens 4 Seedling Tulasnella (5)
  1. Fungal genera listed represent provisional identifications carried out at the time of isolation, based on cultural characteristics described by Currah et al. (1997). Growth habit reflects the substrate where the individual orchid was actually rooted at the time of collection. Collection sites: 1 exposed rocks, occasional tapia trees, 2 exposed marble outcrop, 3 exposed rocks, sandy stream bed, gnarled small trees, 4 open grassland, moist soil, occasional rocks, 5 reduced forest (canopy ca. 20 m), 6 exposed ridges, montane vegetation, 7 dense shaded forest, downhill stream. With one exception (2), all sites were within 5 km of one another
  2. Terrestrial seedlings = 3/3, epiphytic seedlings = 2/10, lithophytic seedlings = 0/5
  3. Terrestrial juveniles = 1/2, epiphytic juveniles = NA, lithophytic juveniles = NA
  4. Terrestrial mature = 2/10, epiphytic mature = NA, lithophytic mature = 0/3
  5. Total terrestrial = 6/15 (40%), total epiphytic = 2/10 (20%), total lithophytic = 0/8 (0%)