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Table 1 Comparison of diagnostic characteristics of S. tarokoense and related taxa

From: Sedum tarokoense (Crassulaceae), a new species from a limestone area in Taiwan

TAXA S. alfredii S. nokoense S. tarokoense S. uniflorum subsp. oryzifolium
Stem Green, thick Reddish, thick Reddish, thick Reddish, slender
Leaves Green, linear-cuneate, spatulate or obovate, 12–30 × 2–6 mm, apex obtuse Green; spatulate, 8–10 × 3–5 mm, apex obtuse Reddish green; orbicular to ellipsoid, rather thick, 5–6 × 3–4 × 2–3 mm, apex obtuse Yellowish green, densely arranged, ovate-oblong to oblong, 4–7 × 2 mm, apex round
Sepal Unequal in length, linear-spatulate Unequal in length, oblanceolate-spatulate to linear-lanceolate Near equal to slightly unequal in length, oblanceolate-spatulate Nearly equal in length, oblong-linear
Inflorescence Corymbiform, many flowered Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched or only one branch, usually 3–5 flowers in each branch Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched or only one branch, usually 4–6 flowers in each branch
Petal Lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 4–6 × 1.6–1.8 mm, apex mucronate Lanceolate, 4–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acuminate Oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.2 mm, apex acute to acuminate Obovate-spatulate, 4 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acute to acuminate
Seed Reddish brown, 0.732 ± 0.010 × 0.311 ± 0.003 mm; papilla surface near glabrous (Jin et al. 2008) Yellowish brown, 0.6–0.75 × 0.23–0.32 mm; papilla ca. 20 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded Dark yellow to brown, 0.7–0.94 × 0.32–0.44 mm; papilla ca. 20–25 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded Dark yellow to brown, 0.5–0.6 × 0.23–0.27 mm; papilla ca. 15 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded