- Open Access
Sedum tarokoense (Crassulaceae), a new species from a limestone area in Taiwan
© Lu et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
- Received: 30 October 2013
- Accepted: 30 October 2013
- Published: 18 November 2013
An unknown Sedum was found from the limestone region in Taiwan. After a detailed comparison with other congeners in Taiwan and neighboring countries, we identified this plant as a new species.
This new taxon resembles S. nokoense Yamamoto, S. alfredii Hance, and S. uniflorum Hook. & Arn. subsp. oryzifolium (Makino) H. Ohba, but differs in leaf shape, sepal morphology, and seed testa micro-morphology. Ecologically, this new taxon occurs exclusively on limestone, while S. nokoense and S. alfredii grow in non-limestone areas and S. uniflorum subsp. oryzifolium is only found on sandy seashores.
Sedum tarokoense H.W. Lin & J.C. Wang is described as a new species. We provide a description, line drawing, and distribution map, as well as photograph, a key and a table to distinguish S. tarokoense from its related species.
- Ecological isolation
- Sedum tarokoense
- Seed testa
Sedum L., the largest genus of Crassulaceae, consists of approximately 470 species of predominantly succulent plants. Sedum is cosmopolitan in distribution and mainly inhabits semiarid and mountainous regions.
According to the Flora of China, the genus can be divided into three sections (Fu and Ohba 2001). Section Sedum can be separated from sections Oeades and Filipes by adaxially gibbous carpels and follicles while sect. Oeades differs from sect. Filipes by having a spurred (vs. spurless) leaf base and petals that are mainly yellow (vs. white).
Phylogenetic studies of the Crassulaceae have grouped members of this family into 7 clades, whereas members of the traditionally defined Sedum were sorted into 4 separate clades, suggesting the polyphyly of the genus (van Ham and ’t Hart 1998; Mort et al. 2001). Mayuzumi and Ohba (2004) further estimated the phylogenetic position of 74 taxa of Asian Sedoideae based on analyses of the cpDNA trnL-trnF region and rDNA ITS region. However, their results failed to establish a clear infrafamilial classification system.
Tentatively following the classification of Fu and Ohba (2001), the Taiwanese species of Sedum, excluding S. drymarioides Hance and S. stellariifolium Franch., should be placed in sect. Sedum because the adaxially gibbous carpels and follicles. The characters usually used to distinguish taxa in sect. Sedum, such as leaf shape, leaf spur, and sepal base, are easily lost or become obscure in dried specimens, which might explain the inconsistency among earlier taxonomic treatments of Sedum in Taiwan. In two editions of the Flora of Taiwan, Liu and Chung (1977) and Tang and Huang (19891993) both listed 14 species, but only 8 species are consistent between them, while the other 6 species are discrepant. For instance, S. formosana N.E. Brown was treated as S. alfredii Hance by Liu and Chung (1977), but recovered by Tang and Huang (19891993); Liu and Chung (1977) treated S. microsepalum Hayata and S. parvisepalum Yamamoto as two distinct species, but Tang and Huang (19891993) lumped them together; Liu and Chung (1977) described two new species, S. triangulosepalum and S. truncatistigma, but they were merged into S. microsepalum by Tang and Huang (19891993). Therefore, an intensive systematic study to clarify the classification of Taiwanese Sedum is necessary. Recently, we revised Sedum in Taiwan and found a previously undescribed taxon. It has ever been collected by some taxonomists (see below) but was always identified as unknown species. We thoroughly surveyed the protologues and type specimens of all described species from Taiwan and compared it with related taxa in neighboring countries (China and Japan) around Taiwan. After detailed comparison of these species, we confirmed that this unknown plant is a new species and describe it here. Furthermore, in order to aid in identification, we also provide photograph, a key, and a table to compare this new species with closely related species.
Materials used in this study were collected from the field. Most plants were pressed and dried and the specimens are deposited in the TNU Herbarium. Voucher specimens for seed observations are also preserved at TNU.
Seeds for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were collected from mature fruits. The air-dried seeds were directly coated with gold and examined with a Hitachi SM 2400 scanning electron microscope.
Sedum tarokoense H.W. Lin & J.C. Wang, sp. nov. — TYPE: TAIWAN. Hualien County, Taroko National Park: Yenhai logging trail, H.W. Lin, S.D. Shen, C.C. Wang & M.J. Lin 1003 (holotype: TNU; isotype: TNU, HAST) 太 魯 閣 佛 甲 草 Figure 1.
Herbs, perennial, fleshy. Stems thick, glabrous, usually reddish, with glandular spots, woody, 6–8(-10) cm tall, basally decumbent, distally erect, rooting at nodes, base usually with young branches. Leaves alternate, usually reddish, approximate, densely arranged on upper part of stem, orbicular to ellipsoid, 5–6 mm long, 3–4 mm wide, 2–3 mm thick, margin entire, base truncate, spurred, apex obtuse, sometimes mucronate. Inflorescence spicate cyme, terminal, usually dichotomously branched or branch 1. Bracts leaf-like, round to elliptic, 3–4 mm long, about 3 mm wide. Flowers usually 3–5 per branch, lower flowers short pedunculate, upper flowers sessile. Sepals 5, free, equal to subequal in length, oblanceolate-spatulate, 2.5–3 mm long, 1–1.2 mm wide, base obtuse to truncate, slightly spurred, apex round or obtuse, reddish green, glabrous, ascending at anthesis, persistent until carpels mature. Petals 5, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–5 mm long, 2 mm wide, base cuneate, apex acute to acuminate, yellow. Stamens 10, 2-whorled; outer stamens connate between petals, opposite sepals; inner petals connate in middle of petal. Anthers orangish yellow, suborbicular to elliptic, 0.5–0.7 mm long, 0.4 mm wide, base emarginate, apex slightly retuse. Filaments filiform, about 3–3.5 mm long. Glands 5, opposite carpels, less than 1 mm long, square, apex slightly emarginate. Carpels 5, free, connate at base, oblong, c. 5 mm long, glabrous, apex rostrate, styles less than 1 mm long. Fruit a follicle. Seeds numerous, 0.7–0.94 mm long, oblong, dark yellow or brown when mature.
Additional specimen examined
TAIWAN. Hualien Hsien, Taroko National Park: Yenhai logging trail, elev. ca. 1200 m, J. C. Wang 7656 (TNU); same loc., C. H. Chen 1193 (TNU, HAST); same loc., C. I Peng 12404, 13009 (HAST); same loc., elev. 300–900 m, P.-F. Lu 9676 (TAIF); same loc., C.-T. Lu & W.-T. Liou 2204, 2205 (TNU); Chuilu Ancient Trail, P. F. Lu 22034 (HAST).
Seeds of Sedum are usually minute (ca. 0.5–1 mm long), ellipsoid to orbicular and appear similar to the naked eye. The ornamentation of the testa of seeds, however, is widely diversified and has been considered to be an important taxonomic character in infrageneric classification (Fröderström 1930193119321936; ’t Hart and Berendsen 1980; Jin et al. 2008). ’t Hart and Berendsen (1980) considered the size and shape of testa cells, presence or absence of papillae, the number of papillae per cell, size of the papillae, and whether the papillae are laterally fused and whether a reticulum is present as characteristics that are variable among taxa.
Comparison of diagnostic characteristics of S. tarokoense and related taxa
S. uniflorum subsp. oryzifolium
Green, linear-cuneate, spatulate or obovate, 12–30 × 2–6 mm, apex obtuse
Green; spatulate, 8–10 × 3–5 mm, apex obtuse
Reddish green; orbicular to ellipsoid, rather thick, 5–6 × 3–4 × 2–3 mm, apex obtuse
Yellowish green, densely arranged, ovate-oblong to oblong, 4–7 × 2 mm, apex round
Unequal in length, linear-spatulate
Unequal in length, oblanceolate-spatulate to linear-lanceolate
Near equal to slightly unequal in length, oblanceolate-spatulate
Nearly equal in length, oblong-linear
Corymbiform, many flowered
Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched
Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched or only one branch, usually 3–5 flowers in each branch
Spicate-cyme, usually dichotomously branched or only one branch, usually 4–6 flowers in each branch
Lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 4–6 × 1.6–1.8 mm, apex mucronate
Lanceolate, 4–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acuminate
Oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.2 mm, apex acute to acuminate
Obovate-spatulate, 4 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acute to acuminate
Reddish brown, 0.732 ± 0.010 × 0.311 ± 0.003 mm; papilla surface near glabrous (Jin et al. 2008)
Yellowish brown, 0.6–0.75 × 0.23–0.32 mm; papilla ca. 20 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded
Dark yellow to brown, 0.7–0.94 × 0.32–0.44 mm; papilla ca. 20–25 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded
Dark yellow to brown, 0.5–0.6 × 0.23–0.27 mm; papilla ca. 15 μm, surface obviously irregularly folded
Sedum tarokoense occurs in exposed, sunny places on limestone scree slopes. Limestone areas are characterized by calcium-rich, high pH soils (Zhu 2003). Additionally, limestone outcrops are often steep and rocky, making them vulnerable to erosion, which results in shallow soils. Although calcium and organic matter are abundant in limestone soils, total mineral availability is generally low due to the shallow soils (Du et al. 2011). Changes in morphology and physiology that help plants adapt to limestone environments include small, thick leaves, well developed palisade tissue, thick cuticles, and sunken stomata (Rong et al. 2005). These changes could have led limestone-adapted plants to gradually diverge from closely related species.
Adaptation to different soil types is evidence of strong natural selection imposed by ecological discontinuities (Wallace 1858). Some modern works on serpentine plants provided good examples of this edaphic specialization (reviewed in Brady et al. 2005). Due to the different chemical components between serpentine and nonserpentine soils, plant populations could produce habitat isolation (Kay et al. 2011). To adapt to serpentine soils, plant species often possess morphologies somewhat distinct from closely related species not adapted to serpentine sites. Subsequently genetic differentiation between these populations will cause them to produce reproductive isolation and even results in ecological speciation (Schluter 2001; Yost et al. 2012). Therefore, this divergent adaptation can affect the components of reproductive isolation and contribute to the generation and maintenance of closely related species (Yost et al. 2012).
Like the cases of serpentine plants, limestone plants also suffer strong natural selection which accounts for the high level of endemism in the Taroko regions. The endemic plants include Euphorbia tarokoensis Hayata, Gentiana tarokoensis C.H. Chen & J.C. Wang, Senecio tarokoensis C.-I Peng, Spiraea tarokoensis Hayata and Galium tarokoense Hayata. Compared with the related species S. nokoense and S. alfredii, S. tarokoense occurs exclusively on limestone and has smaller and thicker leaves, and would be expected to have some physiological changes. We speculate that S. tarokoense may be the result of ecological isolation. Further study should be carried out to examine this hypothesis. On the other hand, the discovery of this new limestone plant also suggests that isolated limestone areas in Taiwan are relatively underexplored and understudied and are a priority for taxonomic work (Peng et al. 2012).
Only two locations, each with approximately 500 adult individuals of S. tarokoense, were counted in an area of 10 km2. Both populations are in Taroko National Park, so they are under no immediate threat of extinction. According to the IUCN red list categories criteria (IUCN 2001), S. tarokoense is categorized as Vulnerable (VU D1+2).
Flowering May to June; fruiting June to July.
The specific epithet is derived from the collection locality of the holotype: Taroko, Hualien.
Key to Sedum tarokoense and related species
Leaves linear-cuneate, spatulate or obovate, 8–30 × 2–6 mm, base attenuate.
Leaves spatulate, 8–10 × 3–5 mm; inflorescences spicate cyme, usually dichotomously branched; petals acuminate. S. nokoense.
Leaves linear-cuneate, spatulate or obovate, 12–30 × 2–6 mm; inflorescences corymbiform; petal apex mucronate. S. alfredii.
Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong or orbicular to ellipsoid, 4–7 × 2–4 mm, base truncate.
Stems 0.5–1 mm in diam., base herbaceous; leaves ovate-oblong to oblong, 4–7 × 2 mm; sepals erect at anthesis; petals obovate-spatulate. S. uniflorum subsp. oryzifolium.
Stems 1.8–2.4 mm in diam., base woody; leaves orbicular to ellipsoid, 5–6 × 3–4 mm; sepals ascending at anthesis; petals oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate. S. tarokoense.
Sedum tarokoense H.W. Lin & J.C. Wang is described as a new species and illustrated based on the morphological, seed micromorphology and ecological differentiation. The present study shows seed testa is a good character to aid in distinguishing the similar species. Moreover, the soil substrate should be an important factor to cause ecological isolation of Sedum species.
We would like to extend our thanks to Dr. David E. Boufford and an anonymous reviewer for improving the manuscript and providing critical comments. We also thank Mr. Chuang, Kuei-Chun for kindly helping to prepare the distribution map. This study was supported by a grant (NSC89-2321-B-003-002) from the National Science Council, ROC.
- ’t Hart H, Berendsen W: Ornamentation of the testa in Sedum (Crassulaceae). Plant Syst Evol 1980, 135: 107–117. 10.1007/BF00983011View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brady KU, Kruckeberg AR, Bradshaw HD Jr: Evolutionary ecology of plant adaptation to serpentine soils. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2005, 36: 243–266. 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.105730View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Du YX, Pan GX, Li LQ, Hu ZL, Wang XZ: Leaf N/P ratio and nutrient reuse between dominant species and stands: predicting phosphorus deficiencies in karst ecosystems, Southwestern China. Environ Earth Sci 2011, 64: 299–309. 10.1007/s12665-010-0847-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fröderström H: The genus Sedum L. A systematic essay. Part 1. Acta Horti Gothob 1930,5(append):3–75.Google Scholar
- Fröderström H: The genus Sedum L. A systematic essay. Part 2. Acta Horti Gothob 1931,6(append):3–111.Google Scholar
- Fröderström H: The genus Sedum L. A systematic essay. Part 3. Acta Horti Gothob 1932,7(append):1–126.Google Scholar
- Fröderström H: The genus Sedum L. A systematic essay. Part 4. Acta Horti Gothob 1936,10(append):1–262.Google Scholar
- Fu KJ, Ohba H: Crassulaceae. In Flora of China, vol. 8. Edited by: Wu ZY, Raven PH. St. Louis: Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden; 2001:202–268.Google Scholar
- IUCN: IUCN red list categories and criteria, ver. 3.1. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: Gland; 2001.Google Scholar
- Jin XF, Li Q, Lu YH, Zhang HW, Wang HZ: Seed micromorphology of Sedum (s. l.) from Zhejiang and its taxonomic implications. J Zhejiang Univ (Agric & Life Sci) 2008, 34: 409–417.Google Scholar
- Kay KM, Ward KL, Watt LR, Schemske DW: Plant speciation. In Serpentine: evolution and ecology in a model system. Edited by: Harrison SP, Rajakaruna N. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press; 2011:71–96.Google Scholar
- Liu TS, Chung NJ, et al.: Crassulaceae. In Flora of Taiwan, vol. 3. Edited by: Li HL. Taipei: Epoch. Pub; 1977:10–24.Google Scholar
- Mayuzumi S, Ohba H: The phylogenetic position of Eastern Asian Sedoideae (Crassulaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Syst Bot 2004, 29: 587–598. 10.1600/0363644041744329View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mort ME, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A: Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of Crassulaceae inferred from matK sequence data. Am J Bot 2001, 88: 76–91. 10.2307/2657129View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng C-I, Kono Y, Chen CJ, Hsu TC, Chung SW: Pouzolzia taiwaniana (Urticaceae), a new species from Taiwan. Bot Stud 2012, 53: 387–392.Google Scholar
- Rong L, Wang SJ, Liu N, Yang L: Leaf anatomical characters and its ecological adaptation of the pioneer species in the karst mountain area—with a special reference to the Huajiang Canyon of Guizhou. J Mount Sci 2005, 23: 35–42.Google Scholar
- Schluter D: Ecology and the origin of species. Trends Ecol Evol 2001, 16: 372–380. 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02198-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang WS, Huang TC: Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (6) - The Sedoideae (Crassulaceae). Taiwania 1989, 34: 157–179.Google Scholar
- Tang WS, Huang TC, et al.: Crassulaceae. In Flora of Taiwan, vol. 3. 2nd edition. Edited by: Huang TC. Taipei, Taiwan: Editorial Committee, Dept. Bot., NTU; 1993:15–34.Google Scholar
- van Ham RCHJ, ’t Hart H: Phylogenetic relationships in the Crassulaceae inferred from chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation. Am J Bot 1998, 85: 123–134. 10.2307/2446561View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wallace AR: On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type. J Proc Linn Soc Zool 1858, 3: 53–62.Google Scholar
- Yost JM, Barry T, Kay KM, Rajakaruna N: Edaphic adaptation maintains the coexistence of two cryptic species on serpentine soils. Am J Bot 2012, 99: 890–897. 10.3732/ajb.1100521View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu SQ: Ecological Research on Karst Forest (III). Guiyang: Guizhou Science and Technology Press; 2003.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.